Chemical elements
    Physical Properties
    Chemical Properties
      Bismuth Trihydride
      Bismuth Trifluoride
      Bismuthyl Fluoride
      Bismuth Trichloride
      Bismuth Oxychloride
      Bismuth Chlorate
      Bismuthyl Perchlorates
      Bismuth Thiochloride
      Bismuth Selenochloride
      Bismuth Dibromide
      Bismuth Tribromide
      Bismuth Oxybromide
      Bismuth Thiobromide
      Bismuth Diiodide
      Bismuth Triiodide
      Bismuth Oxyiodide
      Bismuth Iodate
      Bismuth Thioiodide
      Bismuth Monoxide
      Bismuth Trioxide
      Bismuth Hydroxide
      Bismuth Tetroxide
      Bismuth Pentoxide
      Bismuth Hexoxide
      Bismuth Monosulphide
      Bismuth Trisulphide
      Bismuth Sulphites
      Bismuth Sulphate
      Bismuth Thiosulphates
      Bismuth Triselenide
      Bismuth Chromite
      Bismuth Nitride
      Bismuthyl Nitrite
      Normal Bismuth Nitrate
      Basic Bismuth Nitrate
      Bismuth Phosphide
      Bismuth Hypophosphite
      Bismuth Phosphite
      Bismuth Orthophosphate
      Bismuth Pyrophosphate
      Bismuth Thiophosphate
      Bismuth Arsenide
      Bismuth Arsenite
      Bismuth Arsenate
      Bismuth Carbonate
      Bismuth Cyanides
      Bismuth Thiocyanate
      Bismuth Chromothiocyanate
      Bismuth Orthosilicate
    Detection and Estimation

Bismuthyl Perchlorates

Muir, in one of his early investigations on bismuth compounds, claimed to have prepared bismuthyl perchlorate, BiOClO4, by heating powdered bismuth in a dilute solution of perchloric acid. The solution of bismuth in perchloric acid is, however, accompanied by the reduction of the acid to chloric acid and the liberation of the explosive chlorine dioxide; hence the experiment can be carried out safely only by employing small quantities of 40 per cent, acid and heating very carefully. A similar product is obtained by dissolving bismuth oxide in the acid. The normal perchlorate can also be obtained by careful employment of the latter method. In this way the pentahydrate, Bi(ClO4)3.5H2O, has been obtained in the form of small, hexagonal plates, which are extremely reactive to water, yielding a bismuthyl salt. An unstable trihydrate of bismuthyl perchlorate, BiOClO4.3H2O, is obtained by evaporating a solution of bismuth oxide in a more dilute acid, or by adding water to the normal salt and evaporating over calcium chloride; this passes readily into well-formed hygroscopic rhombohedra of the monohydrate, BiOClO4.H2O, which is the most stable body of this series. By careful drying at 80° to 100° C., the anhydrous perchlorate is obtained as a white powder. All these oxychlorates are soluble in water, yielding clear solutions, without appreciable hydrolysis. A basic perchlorate, whose composition approximates to the formula BiOH.ClO4.H2O, has been obtained by saturating concentrated perchloric acid with bismuth trioxide.

Conductivity measurements on solutions of bismuth perchlorate indicate that a very soluble basic salt, Bi(OH)2.ClO4, is stable even in the presence of a moderate excess of perchloric acid, and that it is converted into less basic salts such as Bi(OH)(ClO4)2 or Bi(ClO4)3 only slowly on addition of excess of acid. The first compound has the conductivity of a non-hydrolysed univalent salt.

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